Your input is appreciated in this post
(with respect to history)
but as I was searching for why much of
Islam remains the least evolved from the middle ages, I
searched for Islamic beliefs during the Renaissance period.
Scholarship, Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, and Literature,
as it began to deselect the unrestrained violence of Medieval period.
Studied by scientists, archeologists, and historians,
is said to be the best laboratory for the studies of any one historical
period, yet with the largest group of scholars and innovators.
Bodley Library: University at Oxford
chemistry, medicine and astronomy were founded upon the
medieval sciences of Islam, which were themselves built upon
the classical traditions lost to the west during the Germanic
destruction of the Roman Empire.
innovations of Islam were plagiarized by famous European
Scholars, it might be central to a mistaken need to promote
"All for the sake of a return to era: 1050? "~M.B.
bazaar, tariff, arsenal, and the Arabic numerals, all come to us from Islam.
kin of Europeans through the efforts of scholars, often Jewish,
who translated the Arabic documents. Many of the Jewish
translators did not know Latin, so they turned the Arabic into
Hebrew and then Latin scholars turned the Hebrew into Latin.
While the Muslims were being driven out of Spain, scholars
tagged along behind the Spanish armies in search of texts. For
them, Toledo was an intellectual jackpot, being the seat of
scholarship in Spain under the Arabs.
works which were translated from the Arab manuscripts during
the twelfth century will indicate the extent of the scientific
revival that took place at that time:
Apollonius preface to his Conic Sections
Archimedes Measurement of the Circle
Ptolemy s Almagest, Optics, Planisphere, and
Heron s Pneumatics
Aristotle s Meteorologica I-IV, Physics, De Caelo,
De Generatione et Corruptione,
Posterior Analytics, Parva Naturalia,
Metaphysics I-IV, and De Anima
Alexander of Aphrodisias De Motu et Tempore
Proclus De Motu
Various medical treatises of both Hippocratus and
Galen and their respective medical schools,
as well as the extensive Arabic contributions
advancing their medical traditions
Al-Kwarismi s trigonometric tables and his
There were also works by dozens of other Arab scholars,
mathematicians, physicians, alchemists et cetera, each of which
had to be translated by somebody into Latin before it could ever
be read by the educated clerics of Europe.
of Bath, Plato of Tivoli, Tobert of Chester, Hermann of
Carinthia, with his pupil Rudolf of Bruges, and Gerard of
Cremona, while in Spain itself were Dominicus Gondisalvi,
Hugh of Santalla, and a group of Jewish scholars including
Petrus Alphonsi, John of Seville, Savasorda, and Abraham ben
Much of the work of translation was carried out at
Barcelona, Tarasona, Sagovia, Leon, Pamplona, as well as
beyond the Pyrenees at Toulouse, Beziers, Narbonne, and
Marseilles, in the first quarter of the twelfth century.
Later, after 1116, the chief centre became Toledo, due to
the patronage of Raymond, the archbishop of Toledo. The
hospitality of the Spanish King, Frederick II (also the Holy
Roman Emperor) to Arab learning certainly sped up the flow of
Arab thought into Christendom.
Basil's: Articles of Interest
Friday at: Joe's Cafe
Wizbang's: Carnival LVIII